GIDDENS.TXT : ANALYSIS RESULTS
DATE: 16/02/2014 - 17:12:36
NUMBER OF ELEMENTARY CONTEXTS CLASSIFIED : 1343 (= 83.73%; OUT OF A TOTAL OF 1604)
ELEMENTARY CONTEXTS IN EACH CLUSTER
SELECTION OF ELEMENTARY CONTEXTS (THE TOP THREE OF EACH
SORTED BY WEIGHED DESCENDING ORDER
CHARACTERISTIC WORDS ARE IN RED
CLUSTER N. 1 - WATER_LEVEL
SCORE ( 89.456 )
produce more acidity in the water, which could
seriously threaten marine life. Warmer seas
release more C02, accelerating the global_warming
effect. As measured over the period
from 1982 to 2006, temperatures rose
most in the Baltic Sea ( 1. 35 °C), the North
Sea ( 1. 3 °C ) and the South
China Sea ( 1. 22 °C ).
SCORE ( 71.040 )
During the winter of 2001-2 it was closed a record 24 times, as_a_result of historic highs in the freshwater levels of the river. Of the total stock of domestic dwellings in the UK, 10 per_cent is currently at risk of flooding. In the summer of 2007, the UK experienced the most intense rainfall known since records began, giving rise to widespread floods.
SCORE ( 53.474 )
Over the past 150 years or so, greenhouse_gases in the atmosphere have progressively increased with the expansion of industrial production. The average world temperature has increased by 0. 7 4 degrees since 1901. We know from geological studies that world temperatures have fluctuated in the past, and that such fluctuations correlate with C02 content in the air.
CLUSTER N. 2 -
SCORE ( 77.080 )
Two other basic concepts are those of political_and_economic convergence. The first refers to how far climate_change policy overlaps in a positive way with other values and political goals. Political_convergence is crucial to how far climate_change policy becomes innovative and energetic, but also to whether it receives widespread public_support.
SCORE ( 52.770 )
Itmeans that the state is responsible for monitoring public goals and for trying to make sure they are realized in a visible and acceptable fashion. 2 PoUtical convergence. This idea refers to the degree to which policies relevant to mitigating climate_change overlap positively with other areas of public_policy, such_that each can be used_to gain traction over the other.
SCORE ( 42.727 )
From the preceding discussion, I take the notions of'sustainabili ty'and'the polluter pays '. The other concepts are: 1 The ensuring state. I talk about the state a_lot in this book, both in the sense of the institutions of government and in the sense of the nation-state, but I don_t want readers to get the wrong idea.
CLUSTER N. 3 - WORLD_COUNTRIES
SCORE ( 73.433 )
the decline of the United Nations
and other such international organizations
is terminal: he speaks of the'demise of the
'. The UN Security Councit which had a brief
moment of cogency just after the Cold
War,'is slipping back into its long coma '.
10 It has_been undermined by the division
between the democracies and the autocracies.
SCORE ( 67.126 )
the future of the world's climate lies in some large_degree in the hands of two nations alone the US and China - since they contribute between them such a high_proportion of the world's greenhouse_gas emissions. Both are restlessly scouring the world for energy supplies to fuel their economies.
SCORE ( 66.620 )
together_with the policies of the Bush_administration which to some extent sparked that return - the international system has_been redefined in_terms_of power and military capability. The burst of enthusiasm at the turn of the century that heralded a new world order based on international agencies rather_than nations,
CLUSTER N. 4 - ASSESSMENTS
SCORE ( 44.829 )
Strong definitions are those such_as'action should_be taken to correct a problem as_soon_as there is evidence that harm may occur '. Sunstein shows that both types of definition are worthless as guides to action. Weak versions of the PP do no more_than state a truism. Governments could not possibly demand certainty in risk situations before taking regulatory action.
SCORE ( 29.148 )
, 60 If one adds to these points the exploitation of risks by special interest groups, it is easy to see how biased risk assessments arise. Since people usually concentrate only on some risks, filtering out others, and since they tend to concentrate on worst-case scenarios, strong versions of the PP result.
SCORE ( 27.354 )
They are quite often'solutions'waiting for problems that_is_to_say, they provide avenues for political intervention when the need for it arises as driven by a specific focusing event or set of events. The availability of'solutions'is very important. Problems which do not come with potential courses of remedial action attached are not likely to get onto the agenda.
CLUSTER N. 5 - CARBON_TAXES
SCORE ( 77.320 )
At a meeting held in July 2008, the G8 countries sought to achieve a consensus over climate_change targets. The leaders announced a plan to cut greenhouse_gas emissions globally by 50 per_cent by 2050. For the first_time the US made a public commitment to pursuing such a target. A joint statement said there is a'need for deep cuts ', but suggested no means for achieving them.
SCORE ( 70.970 )
Such taxes should promote efficiency in energy use and innovation at the beginning of the production cycle, limiting the need for repair and recycling later. There should_be trade-offs where Carbon_taxes are introduced de novo. In other words, citizens should_be offered tax swaps, basically trading environmental taxes 151 against reductions elsewhere.
SCORE ( 70.475 )
David Victor has convincingly argued that the four basic elements of Kyoto ( and the'roadmap') almost ensure just such an outcome. These elements are universal participation, binding emissions targets, integrated emissions trading and compensation to poorer_countries to get their cooperationP Binding targets are only ever likely to work at a national or local level,
CLUSTER N. 6 - SCIENTIFIC_FINDINGS
SCORE ( 92.545 )
8 However, many expressed doubts about the status of the scientific findings on the issue: 60 per_cent either'strongly agreed'or'agreed'with the statement that'many scientific experts still question if humans are contributing to climate_change ', demonstrating the influence of the sceptics, which is out_of all proportion to their numbers in the scientific community.
SCORE ( 36.634 )
29 The media are one of the main filters through which scientific findings and discussions are disseminated and there have_been many instances when sensationalist reporting displaces caution. The political management of risk has to tread a difficult path between alarmism and reassurance. I don_t think we should take doomsday thinking at face value.
SCORE ( 28.100 )
In the rest of this chapter I shall look at issues of adaptation in Europe and then consider in some detail a case study from the UK-adaptation to risks of flooding. I will then switch gear to consider the formidable problems that adaptation poses in the developing_world.
CLUSTER N. 7 - INTEREST_GROUPS
SCORE ( 48.875 )
A new generation of business leaders - who quite often work directly with NGOs is arising which not only acknowledges the perils of climate_change, but is active in the vanguard of reaction to it. Businesses such_as Wal-Mart, which for years were seenby environmentalists as public enemies, have swung behind the climate_change agenda, and in much more thanjust a face-saving way.
SCORE ( 46.537 )
The other two Chinese corporations are Suntech, the third largest solar_energy manufacturer in the world, and a privately_owned firm, Broad air_conditioning. Western businesses involved include BP, BSkyB, Nike and Tesco. China Mobile aims to reduce the energy intensity of its activities by 40 per_cent by 2020.
SCORE ( 43.802 )
Energetic leadership on_the_part_of businesses, NGOs and citizens will_be needed to pursue such goals; so also will the development of new forms of mutual action and collaboration, where necessary making use of the full panoply of modern networked communications. Governments should_have more ambitious aims alongside targets.
CLUSTER N. 8 - CATASTROPHES
SCORE ( 69.740 )
The damage done by a storm or hurricane, for_example, depends vitally upon the path it takes, not only on its strength. Itis hard to even up premiums over a period of time, since the level of damage varies greatly from year to year. The capital requirements are large, since, in a year of high losses, the pay-out all has to come in or close to that period.
SCORE ( 69.490 )
The insurance_claims made in any specific year are mainly determined by the number of catastrophes that occur - those in categories 5 and 6. The record for claims thus far is 2005, the year in which three damaging hurricanes occurred: Katrina, Wilma and Rita.
SCORE ( 65.272 )
The insurer therefore has to look for_a way of spreading risk through reinsurance against a backdrop of the probability that natural catastrophe risks will lead to much greater damage in the future. Moreover, the reinsurers face much the same risks as the original insurers, because_of the high element of uncertainty. New thinking will_be needed to pushback the boundaries of insurability.
CLUSTER N. 9 - GREEN_VALUES
SCORE ( 102.426 )
The green_movement will lose ( or has already lost ) its identity as environmental politics become part of the mainstream. Although green groups and parties holding these ideas will of_course remain, the absorption of the greens into the mainstream means discarding those aspects of green theories of agency that have nothing intrinsically to do with green_values.
SCORE ( 91.859 )
The term'green'inits political sense wascoined inGermany, where the Green Party was also the first to achieve a measure of electoral success. The greens have since developed into a global movement: their first worldwide gathering was held just before the UN conference in Rio in 1992. The Global Green Network has party representatives from some 80 different countries.
SCORE ( 90.687 )
Greens, as mentioned, have a distrust of power and the state the desire for participatory democracy is found in the manifestos of virtually all green parties. Goodin searches for_a logical connection between green_values and the typical green political framework advocacy of participatory democracy, distrust of large-scale power, and non-violence - and finds none.
CLUSTER N. 10 - CO2_EMISSIONS
SCORE ( 151.291 )
For these alone, 600 million tonnes of new coal needs to be dug. World consumption of coal rose by nearly 10 per_cent in 2007, compared to 1. 5 per_cent for oil and 3 per_cent for gas; across the world, 40 per_cent of electricity and 25 per_cent of total energy comes from coal. And so - on_to solar_energy, for many the best hope of all.
SCORE ( 106.641 )
In Britain, nuclear_power generated 19 per_cent of the country's electricity in 2006, compared to 36 per_cent from gas and 38 per_cent from coal. In2007 this proportion dropped to 15 per_cent and it will decline more as the ageing plants lose capacity. The differential was partly made_up in 2007 by the import of 3 per_cent of electricity demand from nuclear plants in France.
SCORE ( 85.691 )
After several years of high growth in the economy, that figure rose to just under 3. 5 tonnes per person by 2006, and its contribution to total emissions rose by 50 per_cent compared to 10 years earlier. Brazil is historically a more developed country than either China or India. The country's present-day figure for emissions, at 6.
CLUSTER N. 11 - GAS_RESOURCES
SCORE ( 97.479 )
China and Russia, in_particular, are seeking to assert themselves, and both see international relations through the prism of great power rivalries. In each case there is a strong connection with energy. Russia's quest to return to great power status is based on its large oil_and_gas resources, while China is searching for energy supplies to sustain and fuel its continuing growth.
SCORE ( 80.143 )
Russia is among the most important of such countries, now in the grip of a small elite drawing its power almost wholly from revenue provided by oil, gas and mineral reserves. The symbiotic, yet tense, relationship between the EU and Russia has attracted a_great_deal of recent commentary.
SCORE ( 74.732 )
Russia has responded with traditional forms of power to blunt EU influence in the exSoviet states thatborder it. Heavily dependent uponRussia for its oil_and_gas supplies-as discussed in chapter 2-the Union has proved an easy target for_a resurgent Russia, which has_had no problems dividing its member-states and concluding bilateral energy deals with some of them.
CLUSTER N. 12 - ENERGY_BILL
SCORE ( 76.913 )
Recognizing how closely climate_change and energy change_policy are intertwined, the government introduced an Energy Bill at about the same time as the climate_change Bill. It was passed as the Energy Act in November 2008. At that time the government also created a new ministry, the Department for Energy and climate_change.
SCORE ( 74.803 )
Initially, take-up was very small, however, since the prices were not competitive. In early 2006 Xcel Energy in Colorado and Austin Energy in Texas offered tariffs below those of the regular energy_sources. Austin Energy encouraged its customers to sign up for 10-year energy contracts, and were able_to prosper even_when the price of electricity dropped.
SCORE ( 53.520 )
Ed Miliband, Secretary of State for Energy and climate_change, announced that a feed-in tariff would_be introduced to complement the Renewables Obligation. 11 The government is considering whether to sanction the building of a coal-fired power station at Kingsnorth in Kent. The proposal is to replace the existing plant with a new one.